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Driver, Marjorie and Omaira Brunal-Perry (translators and editors, 1996) Carolinians in the Mariana Islands in the 1800s MARC Educational Series No. 21, University of Guam. This text is a collection of original source documents, in Spanish and English.

Farrell, Don A. (1991) History of the Northern Mariana Islands Saipan: CNMI Public School System.

Fritz, Georg (1989) The Chamorro: A History and Ethnography of the Marianas Translated by Elfriede Craddock, edited by Scott Russell. Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation (second edition).

Hezel, Francis X. (1989) From Conquest to Colonization: Spain in the Mariana Islands 1690 to 1740 Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation (Second Edition, 2000)

Peattie, Mark R. (1988) Nan'yo: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945 Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Russell, Scott (1998) Tiempon I Manmofo'na: Ancient Chamorro Culture and History in the Northern Mariana Islands Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation.

Russell, Scott (1999) Tiempon Alemán: A Look Back at German Rule in the Northern Mariana Islands, 1899-1914 Saipan: Division of Historic Preservation.

Spenneman, Dirk H.R. (1999) Aurora Australis: The German Period in the Mariana Islands, 1899-1914 Saipan: Occasional Historical Papers No. 5.

Spoehr, Alexander (1954) Saipan: The Ethnography of a War-Devastated Island Fieldlandia: Anthropology, Volume 41. Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum. (A second edition has been published by the CNMI Division of Historic Preservation, Saipan).


Bellin, Jaques N. (1752). Carte de L'Archipel de St. Lazare ou Les Isles Marianes. Image from the Heritage Map Museum auction catalogue:

Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de (1601) Descripcion de las Indias de Poniente. This map by is probably derived from his Historia general de los hechos los castellanos en las islas i tierra firme del mar océano. The images are found at

Images from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Archives are available online from the University of Hawai‘i:

This chapter uses a number of images from the collection of the Northern Marianas Museum, to whom we are enormously grateful.

Except where stated otherwise, all photographs by RDK Herman, Pacific Worlds.


An excellent photographic essay on the German era in Micronesia is presented on the Micronesian Seminar website out of Guam:



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